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Clinical Trial of Nicotinamide Riboside Completed

Today, we want to highlight a recent human trial of the popular supplement nicotinamide riboside, a compound that has been shown in mice to restore NAD+ levels. The

compound has had impressive results against some aspects of aging in mouse studies, and there is now some more data for NR in humans [1].Nootropics Powder

What is nicotinamide riboside?

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) is a chemical that facilitates the production of energy from sugar and is present in every cell in our body. As well as being important in

energy production, it is also involved in DNA repair, cellular signaling, and many other cell functions.

Unfortunately, as we age, the availability of NAD+ declines in the body, and this appears to support the development of metabolic disorders and other age-related diseases. It is

involved in many systems in the body, from useful ones, such as DNA repair, to potentially harmful ones, such as inflammation caused by senescent cells. Due to this, it is

currently unknown if increasing NAD+ signaling will cause more harm than good – more work, such as the study being reported, must be done before we have an answer.
NAD+ can be created de novo, going through multiple enzymatic steps in the de novo pathway (kynurenine pathway), ultimately producing nicotinic acid mononucleotide (NaMN)

as the final step in this process. The term “de novo” means that one biomolecule, in this case, NAD+, is produced anew from a different molecule. Essentially, the NaMN molecule

is built from scratch, starting with the essential amino acid L-tryptophan (Trp). The de novo pathway is the only non-vitamin B3-based pathway that allows the creation of NAD+.

Niacins, such as nicotinic acid- and niacinamide-containing compounds, are taken in via dietary sources or supplements and can be used to create NAD+, with each form entering

the system at different points. Nicotinic acid (NA) and nicotinic acid riboside (NAR) produce NAD+ via the Preiss-Handler pathway. This pathway begins with NA or NAR and

converts both into NAD+ via a series of enzymatic steps. As this diagram shows, NaNM is an intermediate in the pathway, meaning that the de novo pathway shares several

common enzymatic steps with the Preiss-Handler pathway on the road to NAD+ creation.

The final pathway is the salvage pathway, which converts niacinamide (NAM) into NAD+ through a series of steps that continually cycle and recover the NAD+ once it has been

used by the cell, turning it back into NAM to create NAD+ again; hence, it is called the salvage pathway. Nicotinamide riboside (NR) and nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) also

both feed into the salvage pathway and are converted into NAD+.

Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) is also a precursor for NAD+ and part of the salvage pathway and, as recent research shows, can also influence lifespan when

levels are increased in mice.
Researchers have recently published the results of a small-scale human trial using the NAD+ precursor NR; however, this study has not yet been subject to peer review and is

pending publication in a journal. The NR for the study was supplied by Chromadex, the patent holder and sole producer of Niagen, its particular form of NR; Dr. Charles Brenner,

one of the leading study authors, declared that he holds stock in this company. This is not necessarily a red flag, nor does it invalidate the study, but it is something to keep in

This study found no correlation between the age of patients and the level of NAD+ in muscle and brain tissue. Therefore, we might not expect age-related changes in these

tissues to be reversed due to supplementation of an NAD+ raising supplement, such as nicotinamide riboside.

In addition, the study layout was flawed, which may further harm efforts to detect an effect from the supplement. A low number of patients in both treatment and comparison

groups, combined with a large range of patient weights (ranging from the lower ‘healthy’ weights to an upper ‘overweight’ limit) and a flawed method of measuring this weight (BMI,

which can be distorted by patient height and other factors), reduce the accuracy of any results given in this study.

Furthermore, with multiple targets to study, the threshold of certainty below which we could say that the drug is effective is significantly lowered. This was not mentioned by the

study authors.

Factory Supply Nicotinamide Riboside Chloride 98% Large Stock

Nicotinamide riboside (NR) is a pyridine-nucleoside form of vitamin B3 that functions as a precursor to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide or NAD+. it has a lot of health benefits. It

activates sirtuins, which means it is anti-aging and can help support a healthy circadian rhythm. It can also help generate energy in mitochondrial-dense tissues like muscle, brain,

and liver. Nicotinamide Riboside Chloride
it was first discoverd in 1944 as a growth factor, termed Factor V that purified from blood was shown to exist in three forms: NAD+, NMN and NR. which NR was compound that led

to the most rapid growth of a bacterium ,named Haemophilus influenza.
In 2016 the FDA granted generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status for nicotinamide riboside as a food ingredient in enhanced water products, protein shakes, nutrition bars,

gum and chews.
Benefits of NR:
1. NR administration rapidly restored muscle mass. Additionally, it preserved muscle NAD levels and exercise capacity in older mice, helping maintain muscle mass and function
2. Nicotinamide Riboside Helps Fight Against Cancer,it used to limit tumor growth in mice
3. NR increases the amount of NAD in the body, which can help reprogram dysfunctional cells. These combined effects can help to anti aging.
4. Nicotinamide Riboside Increases Metabolism

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Raw Material Nootropic Nefiracetam for Brain Smart

Nefiracetam belong to the non-marginal Enrichment class of drugs, these drugs have different chemical structures, both through the role of the cerebral cortex to enhance

cognitive ability and prevent learning and memory damage. It does not have muscarinic receptor agonist and antagonist properties, does not inhibit the activity of Ach, the drug’s

anti-amnesic and memory-enhancing effect by increasing the release of cerebral cortex Ach achieved.Nefiracetam powder

1. Memory. One of the primary Nefiracetam benefits is better memory and information retention in the long term.
2. Learning Ability. There have been studies showing that this supplement can lead to improvements in spatial learning abilities. Nefiracetam also has a much more potent effect

on increasing attention spans, concentration and focus as compared to other nootropics like Pramiracetam, Oxiracetam or Piracetam.
3. Healthy Brain Cells. It may also be helpful in treating patients with cognitive decline as well as improving the health and maintenance of your brain cells. Taking Nefiracetam is

thought to actually protect brain neurons from premature cell death due to cytoprotective actions.
4. Stress, Anxiety, Depression. Nefiracetam has been found useful for reducing stress, anxiety, and even depression. The mechanisms of action for these supplements are similar

in many respects, but Nefiracetam seems to exhibit a wider range of effects.
5. Seizures. Studies also indicate that this supplement might be effective in treating seizures. This includes both convulsive and non-convulsive seizures. The primary effect is to

greatly reduce the effects of amygdala based seizures and use for stroke patients in reducing the number and duration of post-stroke seizures.
6. Alzheimer’s and Dementia. May have a therapeutic role in Alzheimer’s and Dementia, but this has not been well investigated. Preliminary evidence seems promising
Memory Mechanisms
The memory mechanisms of nefiracetam seem to be linked back to two pathways. One is prolonging the opening of calcium channels which enhances signalling of a receptor

independent of the synapse, and the other pathway seems to be tied into PKC and CAMKII which then augments signalling through cholinergic receptors. The former pathway

appears to be critical for long-term potentiation, whereas the latter pathway appears to be vital for neuronal signal enhancement.
Some other minor pathways include being a partial agonist at the glycine binding site of the NDMA receptor (may enhance signalling when there are subpar levels of glycine, but

attenuates excessive signalling) and increasing affinity of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptors for its ligand, acetylcholine.

1-Trichloromethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline (TaClo)

Several in vitro studies have revealed the neurotoxicity of 1-trichloromethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline (TaClo). However, the underlying mechanism has not been

completely elucidated, particularly in vivo. This study was designed to study the neurotoxicity of TaClo in vivo by stereotactically injecting TaClo into the striatum of Wistar rats.

After the TaClo injections, rats were subjected to an open field test, and their distance travelled and tracks showed decreasing trends over time. The results of liquid

chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis showed that the motor dysfunction of the TaClo-treated rats was accompanied by reduced dopamine levels in the striatum. Based on

the diffusion tensor imaging data, the apparent diffusion coefficient of the nigrostriatal pathway was significantly increased, and subsequent histological staining revealed the

demyelination of nigrostriatal fibres after the TaClo treatment. TaClo induced a loss of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive cells in the substantia nigra compacta. Regarding the

underlying mechanism, TaClo caused oxidative stress in the nigrostriatal system by increasing the production of reactive oxygen species and reducing the mitochondria

membrane potential. Meanwhile, the elevated expression of Iba-1, TNF-α, IL-6, Cox-2, and iNOS indicated microglial activation and a strong innate immune response in the

nigrostriatal system. In addition, activated caspase-3 levels were increased. Thus, both mitochondrial impairments and the innate immune response are involved in TaClo-induced

neurotoxicity.Nootropics Powder

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative movement disorders and affects approximately 1-2% of elderly people. Both genetic and environmental

factors are strongly correlated with the development of PD. However, to date, the exact aetiology and underlying molecular mechanisms of PD remain largely unclear [1]. 1-Methy-

l-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) is known to cause PD. Many other structural analogues of MPTP have been discovered in the environment, including herbicides

(e.g., paraquat), alkaloids (e.g., 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolines), and β-carbolines [2]. Trichloroethylene (TCE) is widely used as a detergent, extractant, and solvent. The main

routes of TCE exposure are industrial waste gas, contaminated groundwater, and volatile organic solvents. 1-Trichloromethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline (TaClo) is an in

vivo metabolic product of TCE. TaClo belongs to the β-carboline family and has a structure similar to the synthetic neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium iodide (MPP+) [3].

Previous studies have reported TaClo concentrations ranging from less than 1 ng to 35 ng per millilitre in blood samples from patients who were orally treated with chloral hydrate

for 3 days to 6 months [4, 5]. Moreover, TaClo is approximately 10 times more potent than MPTP [6], and it penetrates the blood-brain barrier more easily than MPTP [7].

However, to date, the mechanism by which TaClo induces PD remains unclear.

The nigrostriatal pathway (NP) is an anatomical circuit comprising dopaminergic neurons that project from the substantia nigra compacta (SNc) to the striatum forming part of the

basal ganglia motor loop. Dopaminergic neurons in the SNc and their terminals in the striatum constitute the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system. This system is easily impaired

because many extracellular materials can be taken up via plasma membrane dopamine transporters [8]. We hypothesized that TaClo causes PD symptoms by damaging the

nigrostriatal system. Mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and inflammation are involved in degenerative diseases [9]. As shown in the study by Prof. Bing G., TCE treatment

impairs mitochondrial complex I activity [10]. Furthermore, by referring to the GEO database (GSE7621-GPL570), which provides analyses of the SNc in postmortem brain tissues

from patients, the expression of the Cox-2, iNOS, GABPA, and Keap 1 genes is upregulated in patients with PD. We also hypothesized that TaClo induces a positive feedback loop

between mitochondrial oxidative stress and the innate immune response in the central nervous system (CNS). Mitochondrial inhibitors, such as rotenone and MPTP, are known to

increase reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by blocking the electron transport chain at a particular site [11], further causing abnormalities in neuroglia [12]. More

importantly, substantially elevated ROS levels are implicated in the activation of the innate immune response [13]. Subsequently, activated microglia release ROS, further

impairing the mitochondria. This type of positive feedback between mitochondrial dysfunction and the inflammatory cascade in the brain may cause secondary injury, such as

demyelination, dopaminergic neuron apoptosis, and neurodegenerative diseases.

A pure red luminescent β-carboline-substituted biphenylmethyl radical

Luminescent radicals, whose emission comes from the doublet exited state, have potential application in the field of organic optoelectronics. However, few radicals show

luminescence at room temperature. Herein, a new pure red-emissive biphenyl-type (N-pyrido[3,4-b]indolyl)bis(2,4,6-trichlorophenyl)methyl radical (PyID-BTM) is designed and

synthesized, in which the carbazole moiety of CzBTM (a previously reported biphenylmethyl radical by our group) is successfully replaced by β-carboline. Its photophysical

properties, including the ground and excited states, and the radiative and non-radiative processes are systematically investigated. beta carboline
The photoluminescence quantum efficiency (ϕ = 19.5%) of PyID-BTM is ten times higher than that of CzBTM (ϕ = 2.0%) in cyclohexane. The crystal structure, magnetic properties,

photostability and electroluminescence performance of PyID-BTM are studied. An optimized OLED device using PyID-BTM as an emissive dopant showed pure red emission with

CIE coordinates of (0.649,0.317) and a maximum EQE of 2.8%, and the formation ratio of doublet excitons was up to 70%. This study provides a new approach for designing high

-performance luminescence biphenylmethyl radicals for applications in organic electroluminescence.

China Factory Supply AC-262536 CAS 870888-46-3 Muscle Building AC262536

Product name:AC-262536
CAS: 870888-46-3
Molar Mass: 278.348 g/mol
Chemical Formula: C18H18N2O
Chemical Name: 4-(3-hydroxy-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octan-8-yl)naphthalene-1-carbonitrile
Synonyms: AC-262,536, AC-262536, CHEMBL468938, SCHEMBL4879629
Storage: 2-8°C.
Solubility: Ethanol.
Melting point: 158-162 °C.

AC-262536 Informations:
AC-262536 is a compound which acts as a selective androgen receptor modulator. Chemically it possesses endo-exo isomerism, with the endo form being the active form.

Activity of AC-262536:
AC-262536 is a drug developed by Acadia Pharmaceuticals which acts as a selective androgen receptor modulator. Chemically it possesses endo-exo isomerism, with the endo form being the active form. It acts as apartial agonist for the androgen receptor with a Ki of 5nM, and no significant affinity for any other receptors tested. In animal studies it produced a maximal effect of around 66% of the anabolic action, but only around 27% of its potency as an androgen.

China Weight Loss Raw Powder Belviq Lorcaserin HCl/Lorcaserin

Product Name: Lorcaserin Hcl weight loss powder
English name: Lorcaserin hydrochloride
English Synonyms: (1R) -8-Chloro-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1-methyl-1H-3-benzazepine hydrochloride; APD 356; APD-356; UNII-0QJF08GDPE; Lorcaserin HCl; (R) – 1H-3-Benzazepine, 8-Chloro-2,3,4,5-Tetrahydro-1-Methyl-, Hydrochloride
CAS: 846589-98-8
Formula: C11H14ClN · ClH
MW: 232.1525
Molecular Structure:
Appearance:white powder
Boiling point : 288.125°C at 760 mmHg
Flash point : 128.054°C
Product usage : Medicine reducing weight and antidepressants

Belviq(Lorcaserin hydrochloride) is an FDA-approved prescription weight-loss medication that, when used with diet and exercise, can help some overweight? adults with a weight-related medical problem, or obese adults, lose weight and keep it off. It is not known if BELVIQ when taken with other prescription, over-the-counter, or herbal weight-loss products is safe and effective. It is not known if BELVIQ changes your risk of heart problems, stroke, or death due to heart problems or stroke.

Belviq is a serotonin 2C receptor agonist. It hasbeen shown to decrease food consumption and promote satiety by selectivelyactivating serotonin 2C receptors in the brain.

Belviq is specifically indicated as an adjunct to a reduced-calorie diet andincreased physical activity for chronic weight management in clinically obeseadults (BMI of 30 kg/m2 or greater) and overweight adults (BMI of 27 kg/m2 orgreater) with at least one weight-related comorbid condition.

Belviq is supplied as a tablet designed for oral administration. The recommendeddose is one 10mg tablet twice daily. Use of Belviq should be discontinued if 5%weight loss is not achieved by week 12 of treatment.

High quality MK 677 sarms MK677 powder

High quality MK 677 sarms MK677 powder

1. Product Name:High quality MK 677 Sarms powder
2. M.F.: C28H40N4O8S2
3. Appearance:White powder
4. Molecular Weight: 624.769
5. CAS Number: 159752-10-0
6. Test Method: HPLC
7. Introduction:
Ibutamoren (MK-677, L-163,191) is a drug which acts as a potent, orally active growth hormonesecretagogue, mimicking the GH stimulating action of the endogenous hormone ghrelin. It has been demonstrated to increase the release of, and produces sustained increases in plasma levels of several hormones including growth hormone and IGF-1, but without affecting cortisol levels. It is currently under development as a potential treatment for reduced levels of these hormones, such as in growth hormone deficient children or elderly adults, and human studies have shown it to increase both muscle mass and bone mineral density, making it a promising therapy for the treatment of frailty in the elderly. It also alters metabolism of body fat and so may have application in the treatment of obesity.


Most people take good care of their physical health and fitness, or at least they try to. Mental wellness, on the other hand, is often neglected and many early signs of mental disorders are overlooked until the problem gets too serious to ignore.nootropics

The good news is that there is increasing recognition of mental disorders and the importance of mental health in our stress-loaded present-day lifestyle. Consequently, there is increasing interest in products and supplements that are intended to improve mental well-being.

Nootropics are a hot topic right now. Don’t worry if you’ve never heard the word “nootropic” before — this is simply a fancy term for any supplement or drug that is used to enhance aspects of cognitive performance. For example, caffeine improves alertness and concentration, thus it is considered a nootropic substance.

There are probably hundreds of different nootropic substances on the market, consisting of both natural extracts and synthetic compounds. They can be categorized based on their primary uses, and one of the most sought-after types of nootropics are those used to support relaxation and restful sleep.

Anxiety and stress can dramatically hinder cognitive abilities during the day. Additionally, anxiety can make it impossible to get adequate sleep at night, which also contributes towards poor cognitive performance.By reducing the levels of anxiety and stress and promoting better sleep quality, some nootropics can make a big improvement in some people’s lives. Phenibut is one of those nootropics and we are going to learn a little bit more about this common anti-anxiety aid and its benefits.

Phenibut is the commercial name for the compound 4-amino-3-phenylbutyric acid. This is a synthetic analogue of an amino acid called GABA — short for gamma aminobutyric acid.GABA is an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain that is responsible for inhibiting stimulation and inducing a state of rest and tranquility.

Since phenibut is structurally similar to GABA, it binds to GABA receptors in brain cells and causes them to calm and slow down. In other words, phenibut is effectively GABA, but it has greater effectiveness at lower concentrations.

Phenibut has strong anxiety-reducing and sedative properties, and it is mainly used for people who suffer from anxiety, nervousness and insomnia. In a few countries, it is an approved treatment option for some disorders, however, in the USA it is not approved by the FDA, but it is available as an over-the-counter supplement.

Nootropics Powder 6-Parado 50% Powder

Nootropics Powder 6-Parado 50% Powder

The 6-Paradol, with the CAS registry number 27113-22-0, is also known as 3-Decanone, 1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-. Its EINECS registry number is 248-228-1. This chemical’s molecular formula is C17H26O3 and molecular weight is 278.38654. What’s more, its IUPAC name is 1-(4-Hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)decan-3-one. This chemical’s classification code is Drug / Therapeutic Agent. In addition, 6-Paradol is the active flavor constituent of the seeds of Guinea pepper (Aframomum melegueta). And the seed is also known as Grains of paradise. Besides, this chemical has been found to have antioxidative and antitumor promoting effects. And it is used in flavors as an essential oil to give spiciness.Paradol is the active flavor constituent of the seeds of Guinea pepper (Aframomum melegueta). Theseed is also known as Grains of paradise. Paradol has been found to have antioxidative andantitumor promoting effects.Best Nootropics powder
1.Weight loss
In a related clinical trial, researchers of the Japanese Society of Nutrition have found that aframomum melegueta has the ability to lower body fat percentage, and decreased waisthip ratio without any harmful side effects. Recently, further studies on
aframomum melegueta have reported its 6 paradol chemical constituent to be biologically significant beyond its medicinal value.

2. Bodybuilding benefits
Aframomum melegueta extract has been established to be beneficial in bodybuilding purposes as it obtains intense anti-estrogenic properties and promotes an increase in body weight and levels in serum by more than 300%.

3. Increase t level as a Aphrodisiac
This benefit of aframomum melegueta is not proofed by the scitific evidences. But many guys believe it works when take a few weeks